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Yoga is a physical, mental, and spiritual discipline, originating in ancient India. Yoga is based on the Yoga Sutras of Patanjali.
The eight limbs or the Ashtanga Yoga are:
• Yama: ethics, restraint and ahimsa
• Niyama: cleanliness, ascetism
• Asana: posture
• Pranayama: breath control
• Pratyahara: sense withdrawal
• Dharana: concentration
• Dhyana: meditation
• Samadhi: non dualistic state of consciousness in which the mind becomes still, one pointed or concentrated while the person remains conscious while becoming one with the object of their meditation
Hatha yoga, also called hatha vidya is a system of yoga introduced by Yogi Swatmarama, a Hindu sage of 15th century India, and compiler of the Hatha Yoga Pradipika.
"The word "hatha" may esoterically be said to derive from the Sanskrit terms "ha" meaning "sun" and "tha" meaning "moon". Hatha Yoga is known as the branch of Yoga that unites pairs of opposites referring to the positive (sun) and negative (moon) currents in the system.
Types of Yoga:
Hatha Yoga: A yoga system of physical exercises and breathing control.
Iyengar Yoga: Lots of props with this type of yoga such as blocks, harnesses, straps, and even cushions. There's also a lot of focus on alignment so Iyengar can be great for physical therapy.
Jivamukti Yoga: Jivamukti is mostly practiced in NYC as it was founded there in 1984. It has a bit of a celebrity following as Russell Simmons, Christy Turlington, and Sting are all fans of Jivamukti. It's a diverse type of yoga as you might find music, chanting, and scripture reading in a class.
Kundalini Yoga: "Kundalini" refers to the energy of the Root Chakra, which surrounds the area around your lower spine. Expect lots of work on your "core" area and your abs. You should also expect rapid movement and more sitting than usual.
Bikram Yoga: Practice yoga in 40 degree heat and in 40% humidity. Bikram only has 26 poses and there's lots of alignment work
Ashtanga Yoga: Power yoga, Ashtanga is physically demanding.
Hari Das teaches Hatha Yoga with elements from several styles of yoga including Iyengar.